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The Kepler-19 System: A Thick-envelope Super-Earth with Two Neptune-mass Companions Characterized Using Radial Velocities and Transit Timing Variations

L. Malavolta, L. Borsato, V. Granata, G. Piotto, E. Lopez, A. Vanderburg, P. Figueira, A. Mortier, V. Nascimbeni, L. Affer, A. S. Bonomo, F. Bouchy, L. A. Buchhave, D. Charbonneau, A. C. Cameron, R. Cosentino, C. D. Dressing, X. Dumusque, A. F. M. Fiorenzano, A. Harutyunyan, R. D. Haywood, J. Johnson, D. W. Latham, M. Lˇpez-Morales, C. Lovis, M. Mayor, G. Micela, D. Molinari, F. Motalebi, F. Pepe, D. F. Phillips, D. Pollacco, D. Queloz, K. Rice, D. Sasselov, D. Segransan, A. Sozzetti, S. Udry, C. A. Watson

Abstract

We report a detailed characterization of the Kepler-19 system. This star was previously known to host a transiting planet with a period of 9.29 days, a radius of 2.2 R-circle plus, and an upper limit on the mass of 20M(circle plus). The presence of a second, non-transiting planet was inferred from the transit time variations (TTVs) of Kepler-19b over eight quarters of Kepler photometry, although neither the mass nor period could be determined. By combining new TTVs measurements from all the Kepler quarters and 91 high-precision radial velocities obtained with the HARPS-N spectrograph, using dynamical simulations we obtained a mass of 8.4 +/- 1.6M(circle plus) for Kepler-19b. From the same data, assuming system coplanarity, we determined an orbital period of 28.7 days and a mass of 13.1 +/- 2.7 M-circle plus for Kepler-19c and discovered a Neptune-like planet with a mass of 20.3 +/- 3.4M(circle plus) on a 63-day orbit. By comparing dynamical simulations with non-interacting Keplerian orbits, we concluded that neglecting interactions between planets may lead to systematic errors that can hamper the precision in the orbital parameters when the data set spans several years. With a density of 4.32 +/- 0.87 g cm(-3) (0.78 +/- 0.16(rho circle plus)) Kepler-19b belongs to the group of planets with a rocky core and a significant fraction of volatiles, in opposition to low-density planets characterized only by transit time variations and an increasing number of rocky planets with Earth-like density. Kepler-19 joins the small number of systems that reconcile transit timing variation and radial velocity measurements.

Keywords
planetary systems, planets and satellites: composition, planets and satellites: dynamical evolution and stability, stars: individual: Kepler-19, techniques: radial velocities, techniques: photometric

The Astronomical Journal
Volume 153, Number 224
2017 May

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Instituto de Astrof├şsica e Ci├¬ncias do Espa├žo Universidade do Porto Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa Funda├ž├úo para a Ci├¬ncia e a Tecnologia
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