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Tackling non-linearities with the effective field theory of dark energy and modified gravity

N. Frusciante, G. Papadomanolakis

We present the extension of the effective field theory framework to the mildly nonlinear scales. The effective field theory approach has been successfully applied to the late time cosmic acceleration phenomenon and it has been shown to be a powerful method to obtain predictions about cosmological observables on linear scales. However, mildly non-linear scales need to be consistently considered when testing gravity theories because a large part of the data comes from those scales. Thus, non-linear corrections to predictions on observables coming from the linear analysis can help in discriminating among different gravity theories. We proceed firstly by identifying the necessary operators which need to be included in the effective field theory Lagrangian in order to go beyond the linear order in perturbations and then we construct the corresponding non-linear action. Moreover, we present the complete recipe to map any single field dark energy and modified gravity models into the non-linear effective field theory framework by considering a general action in the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner formalism. In order to illustrate this recipe we proceed to map the beyond-Horndeski theory and low-energy Horava gravity into the effective field theory formalism. As a final step we derived the 4th order action in term of the curvature perturbation. This allowed us to identify the non-linear contributions coming from the linear order perturbations which at the next order act like source terms. Moreover, we confirm that the stability requirements, ensuring the positivity of the kinetic term and the speed of propagation for scalar mode, are automatically satisfied once the viability of the theory is demanded at linear level. The approach we present here will allow to construct, in a model independent way, all the relevant predictions on observables at mildly non-linear scales.

cosmological perturbation theory; dark energy theory; gravity; modified gravity

Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics
Volume 12, Issue 014
2017 December

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Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa Universidade do Porto Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade de Coimbra
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia COMPETE 2020 PORTUGAL 2020 União Europeia