P. P. Avelino, D. Bazeia, L. Losano, J. Menezes, B. F. Oliveira
Stochastic simulations of cyclic three-species spatial predator-prey models are usually performed in square lattices with nearest-neighbour interactions starting from random initial conditions. In this letter we describe the results of off-lattice Lotka-Volterra stochastic simulations, showing that the emergence of spiral patterns does occur for sufficiently high values of the (conserved) total density of individuals. We also investigate the dynamics in our simulations, finding an empirical relation characterizing the dependence of the characteristic peak frequency and amplitude on the total density. Finally, we study the impact of the total density on the extinction probability, showing how a low population density may jeopardize biodiversity.
ROCK-PAPER-SCISSORS; COMPETITION MODELS; STRING NETWORKS; GAME; DOMINANCE; PROMOTES
Volume 121, Number 4800, Page 5