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The Gaia-ESO Survey: a kinematical and dynamical study of four young open clusters

L. Bravi, E. Zari, G. G. Sacco, S. Randich, R. D. Jeffries, R. J. Jackson, E. Franciosini, E. Moraux, J. López-Santiago, E. Pancino, L. Spina, N. J. Wright, F. Jiménez-Esteban, A. Klutsch, V. Roccatagliata, G. Gilmore, A. Bragaglia, E. Flaccomio, P. François, S. Koposov, A. Bayo, G. Carraro, M. T. Costado, F. Damiani, A. Frasca, A. Hourihane, P. Jofré, C. Lardo, J. Lewis, L. Magrini, L. Morbidelli, L. Prisinzano, S. G. Sousa, C. Worley, S. Zaggia

Context. The origin and dynamical evolution of star clusters is an important topic in stellar astrophysics. Several models have been proposed in order to understand the formation of bound and unbound clusters and their evolution, and they can be tested by examining the kinematical and dynamical properties of clusters over a wide range of ages and masses.

Aims. We use the Gaia-ESO Survey products to study four open clusters (IC 2602, IC 2391, IC 4665, and NGC 2547) that lie in the age range between 20 and 50 Myr.

Methods. We employ the gravity index γ and the equivalent width of the lithium line at 6708 Å together with effective temperature Teff and the metallicity of the stars in order to discard observed contaminant stars. Then we derive the cluster radial velocity dispersions σc, the total cluster mass Mtot, and the half mass radius rhm. Using the Gaia-DR1 TGAS catalogue, we independently derive the intrinsic velocity dispersion of the clusters from the astrometric parameters of cluster members.

Results. The intrinsic radial velocity dispersions derived by the spectroscopic data are higher than those derived from the TGAS data, possibly due to the different masses of the considered stars. Using Mtot and rhm we derive the virial velocity dispersion σvir and we find that three out of four clusters are supervirial. This result is in agreement with the hypothesis that these clusters are dispersing, as predicted by the “residual gas expulsion” scenario. However, recent simulations show that the virial ratio of young star clustersmay be overestimated if it is determined using the global velocity dispersion, since the clusters are not fully relaxed.

Astronomy & Astrophysics
Volume 615, Article Number A37, Number of pages 14
2018 July

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Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa Universidade do Porto Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade de Coimbra
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia COMPETE 2020 PORTUGAL 2020 União Europeia