RESEARCH
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SOPHIE velocimetry of Kepler transit candidates
XVIII. Radial velocity confirmation, absolute masses and radii, and origin of the Kepler-419 multiplanetary system

J.-M. Almenara, R. F. Díaz, G. Hébrard, R. A. Mardling, C. Damiani, A. Santerne, F. Bouchy, S. C. C. Barros, I. Boisse, X. Bonfils, A. S. Bonomo, B. Courcol, O. Demangeon, M. Deleuil, J. Rey, S. Udry, P. A. Wilson

Abstract
Kepler-419 is a planetary system discovered by the Kepler photometry which is known to harbour two massive giant planets: an inner 3 MJ transiting planet with a 69.8-day period, highly eccentric orbit, and an outer 7.5 MJ non-transiting planet predicted from the transit-timing variations (TTVs) of the inner planet b to have a 675-day period, moderately eccentric orbit. Here we present new radial velocity (RV) measurements secured over more than two years with the SOPHIE spectrograph, where both planets are clearly detected. The RV data is modelled together with the Kepler photometry using a photodynamical model. The inclusion of velocity information breaks the MR−3 degeneracy inherent in timing data alone, allowing us to measure the absolute stellar and planetary radii and masses. With uncertainties of 12 and 13% for the stellar and inner planet radii, and 35, 24, and 35% for the masses of the star, planet b, and planet c, respectively, these measurements are the most precise to date for a single host star system using this technique. The transiting planet mass is determined at better precision than the star mass. This shows that modelling the radial velocities and the light curve together in systems of dynamically interacting planets provides a way of characterising both the star and the planets without being limited by knowledge of the star. On the other hand, the period ratio and eccentricities place the Kepler-419 system in a sweet spot; had around twice as many transits been observed, the mass of the transiting planet could have been measured using its own TTVs. Finally, the origin of the Kepler-419 system is discussed. We show that the system is near a coplanar high-eccentricity secular fixed point, related to the alignment of the orbits, which has prevented the inner orbit from circularising. For most other relative apsidal orientations, planet b’s orbit would be circular with a semi-major axis of 0.03 au. This suggests a mechanism for forming hot Jupiters in multiplanetary systems without the need of high mutual inclinations.

Keywords
planetary systems, techniques: photometric, techniques: radial velocities

Notes
Based on observations made with SOPHIE on the 1.93 m telescope at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence (CNRS), France.

Astronomy and Astrophysics
Volume 615, Article Number A90, Number of pages 16
2018 July

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Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço Universidade do Porto Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia COMPETE 2020 PORTUGAL 2020 União Europeia