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Exploring the stellar properties of M dwarfs with high-resolution spectroscopy from the optical to the near-infrared

A. S. Rajpurohit, F. Allard, S. Rajpurohit, S. Sharma, G. D. C. Teixeira, O. Mousis, R. Kamlesh

Abstract
Context. Being the most numerous and oldest stars in the galaxy, M dwarfs are objects of great interest for exoplanet searches. The presence of molecules in their atmosphere complicates our understanding of their atmospheric properties. But great advances have recently been made in the modeling of M dwarfs due to the revision of solar abundances.
Aims. We aim to determine stellar parameters of M dwarfs using high resolution spectra (R ∼ 90 000) simultaneously in the visible and the near-infrared. The high resolution spectra and broad wavelength coverage provide an unique opportunity to understand the onset of dust and cloud formation at cool temperatures. Furthermore, this study will help in understanding the physical processes which occur in a cool atmospheres, particularly, the redistribution of energy from the optical to the near-infrared.
Methods. The stellar parameters of M dwarfs in our sample have been determined by comparing the high resolution spectra both in the optical and in the near-infrared simultaneously observed by CARMENES with the synthetic spectra obtained from the BT-Settl model atmosphere. The detailed spectral synthesis of these observed spectra both in the optical and in the near-infrared helps to understand the missing continuum opacity.
Results. For the first time, we derive fundamental stellar parameters of M dwarfs using the high resolution optical and near-infrared spectra simultaneously. We determine Teff, log g and [M/H] for 292 M dwarfs of spectral type M0 to M9, where the formation of dust and clouds are important. The derived Teff for the sample ranges from 2300 to 4000 K, values of log g ranges from 4.5 ≤ logg ≤ 5.5 and the resulting metallicity ranges from −0.5 ≤ [M/H] ≤ +0.5. We have also explored the possible differences in Teff, log g and [M/H] by comparing them with other studies of the same sample of M dwarfs.

Keywords
stars: fundamental parameters / stars: low-mass / stars: atmospheres

Notes
Table 2 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/620/A180

Astronomy and Astrophysics
Volume 620, Article Number A180, Number of pages 8
2018 December

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Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço Universidade do Porto Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia COMPETE 2020 PORTUGAL 2020 União Europeia