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Boltzmann's H-theorem, entropy and the strength of gravity in theories with a nonminimal coupling between matter and geometry

P. P. Avelino, R. P. L. Azevedo

In this paper we demonstrate that Boltzmann's H-theorem does not necessarily hold in the context of theories of gravity with nonminimally coupled matter fields. We find sufficient conditions for the violation of Boltzmann's H-theorem and derive an expression for the evolution of Boltzmann's H in terms of the nonminimal coupling function, valid in the case of a collisionless gas in a homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universe. We highlight the implications of this result for the evolution of the entropy of the matter fields, briefly discussing the role played by collisions between particles whenever they are relevant. We also suggest a possible link between the high entropy of the Universe and the weakness of gravity in the context of these theories.

General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology; Astrophysics - Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics; High Energy Physics - Theory

Physics Letters B
Volume 808
2020 September

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Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa Universidade do Porto Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade de Coimbra
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia COMPETE 2020 PORTUGAL 2020 União Europeia