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Benchmark stars, benchmark spectrographs. Detailed spectroscopic comparison of ESPRESSO, PEPSI, and HARPS data for Gaia benchmark stars

V. Zh. Adibekyan, S. G. Sousa, N. C. Santos, P. Figueira, C. Allende Prieto, E. Delgado Mena, J. I. GonzŠlez HernŠndez, P. de Laverny, A. Recio-Blanco, T. L. Campante, M. Tsantaki, A. A. Hakobyan, M. Oshagh, J. P. Faria, M. Bergemann, G. Israelian, T. Boulet

Abstract
Context. Gaia benchmark stars are selected to be calibration stars for different spectroscopic surveys. Very high-quality and homogeneous spectroscopic data for these stars are therefore required. We collected ultrahigh-resolution ESPRESSO spectra for 30 of the 34 Gaia benchmark stars and made them public.
Aims. We quantify the consistency of the results that are obtained with different high- (R ~ 115 000), and ultrahigh- (R ~ 220 000) resolution spectrographs. We also comprehensively studied the effect of using different spectral reduction products of ESPRESSO on the final spectroscopic results.
Methods. We used ultrahigh- and high-resolution spectra obtained with the ESPRESSO, PEPSI, and HARPS spectrographs to measure spectral line characteristics (line depth; line width; and equivalent width, EW) and determined stellar parameters and abundances for a subset of 11 Gaia benchmark stars. We used the ARES code for automatic measurements of the spectral line parameters.
Results. Our measurements reveal that the same individual spectral lines measured from adjacent 2D (spectrum in the wavelength-order space) echelle orders of ESPRESSO spectra differ slightly in line depth and line width. When a long list of spectral lines is considered, the EW measurements based on the 2D and 1D (the final spectral product) ESPRESSO spectra agree very well. The EW spectral line measurements based on the ESPRESSO, PEPSI, and HARPS spectra also agree to within a few percent. However, we note that the lines appear deeper in the ESPRESSO spectra than in PEPSI and HARPS. The stellar parameters derived from each spectrograph by combining the several available spectra agree well overall.
Conclusions. We conclude that the ESPRESSO, PEPSI, and HARPS spectrographs can deliver spectroscopic results that are sufficiently consistent for most of the science cases in stellar spectroscopy. However, we found small but important differences in the performance of the three spectrographs that can be crucial for specific science cases.

Keywords
stars: fundamental parameters; techniques: spectroscopic; stars: abundances; instrumentation: spectrographs; Astrophysics - Solar and Stellar Astrophysics; Astrophysics - Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics

Notes
Based on observations collected at the Paranal Observatory, ESO (Chile) with the ESPRESSO spectrograph at the VLT (ESO runs ID 0102.D-0185(A); 0103.D-0118(A); 0104.D-0362(A)).

Astronomy and Astrophysics
Volume 642, Article Number A182, Number of pages 16
2020 October

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Instituto de Astrof√≠sica e Ci√™ncias do Espa√ßo Universidade do Porto Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia COMPETE 2020 PORTUGAL 2020 União Europeia