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Local conditions separating expansion from collapse in spherically symmetric models with anisotropic pressures

J. P. Mimoso, M. Le Delliou, F. C. Mena

We investigate spherically symmetric spacetimes with an anisotropic fluid and discuss the existence and stability of a separating shell dividing expanding and collapsing regions. We resort to a 3+1 splitting and obtain gauge invariant conditions relating intrinsic spacetime quantities to properties of the matter source. We find that the separating shell is defined by a generalization of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equilibrium condition. The latter establishes a balance between the pressure gradients, both isotropic and anisotropic, and the strength of the fields induced by the Misner-Sharp mass inside the separating shell and by the pressure fluxes. This defines a local equilibrium condition, but conveys also a nonlocal character given the definition of the Misner-Sharp mass. By the same token, it is also a generalized thermodynamical equation of state as usually interpreted for the perfect fluid case, which now has the novel feature of involving both the isotropic and the anisotropic stresses. We have cast the governing equations in terms of local, gauge invariant quantities that are revealing of the role played by the anisotropic pressures and inhomogeneous electric part of the Weyl tensor. We analyze a particular solution with dust and radiation that provides an illustration of our conditions. In addition, our gauge invariant formalism not only encompasses the cracking process from Herrera and co-workers but also reveals transparently the interplay and importance of the shear and of the anisotropic stresses.

Mathematical: and: relativistic: aspects: of: cosmology - Exact: solutions - Einstein-Maxwell: spacetimes: with: fluids: radiation: or: classical: fields - Relativity: and: gravitation

Physical Review D
Volume 88, Issue 0435, Page 043501_1
2013 August

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Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa Universidade do Porto Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade de Coimbra
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia COMPETE 2020 PORTUGAL 2020 União Europeia