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ExoClock Project. II. A Large-scale Integrated Study with 180 Updated Exoplanet Ephemerides

A. Kokori, A. Tsiaras, B. Edwards, M. Rocchetto, G. Tinetti, L. Bewersdorff, Y. Jongen, G. Lekkas, G. Pantelidou, E. Poultourtzidis, A. Wnsche, C. Aggelis, V. K. Agnihotri, C. Arena, M. Bachschmidt, D. Bennett, P. Benni, K. Bernacki, E. Besson, L. Betti, A. Biagini, P. Brandebourg, M. Bretton, S. M. Brincat, M. Cal, F. Campos, R. Casali, R. Ciantini, M. V. Crow, B. Dauchet, S. Dawes, M. Deldem, D. Deligeorgopoulos, R. Dymock, T. Eenme, P. Evans, N. Esseiva, C. Falco, S. Ferratfiat, M. Fowler, S. R. Futcher, J. Gaitan, F. Grau Horta, P. Guerra, F. Hurter, A. Jones, W. Kang, H. Kiiskinen, T. Kim, D. Laloum, R. Lee, F. Lomoz, C. Lopresti, M. Mallonn, M. Mannucci, A. Marino, J.-C. Mario, J.-B. Marquette, J. Michelet, M. Miller, T. Mollier, D. Molina, N. Montigiani, F. Mortari, M. Morvan, L. V. Mugnai, L. Naponiello, A. Nastasi, R. Neito, E. Pace, P. Papadeas, N. Paschalis, C. P. Pereira, V. Perroud, M. Phillips, P. Pintr, J.-B. Pioppa, A. Popowicz, M. Raetz, F. Regembal, K. Rickard, M. Roberts, L. Rousselot, X. Rubia, J. Savage, D. Sedita, D. Shave-Wall, N. Sioulas, V. kolnk, M. Smith, D. St-Gelais, D. Stouraitis, I. Strikis, G. Thurston, A. Tomacelli, A. Tomatis, B. Trevan, P. Valeau, J. -. Vignes, K. Vora, M. Vraťk, F. Walter, B. Wenzel, D. E. Wright, M. Zbar

Abstract
The ExoClock project is an inclusive, integrated, and interactive platform that was developed to monitor the ephemerides of the Ariel targets to increase the mission efficiency. The project makes the best use of all available resources, i.e., observations from ground telescopes, midtime values from the literature, and finally, observations from space instruments. Currently, the ExoClock network includes 280 participants with telescopes capable of observing 85% of the currently known Ariel candidate targets. This work includes the results of ∼1600 observations obtained up to 2020 December 31 from the ExoClock network. These data in combination with ∼2350 midtime values collected from the literature are used to update the ephemerides of 180 planets. The analysis shows that 40% of the updated ephemerides will have an impact on future scheduling as either they have a significantly improved precision or they have revealed biases in the old ephemerides. With the new observations, the observing coverage and rate for half of the planets in the sample has been doubled or more. Finally, from a population perspective, we identify that the differences in the 2028 predictions between the old and the new ephemerides have an STD that is double what is expected from Gaussian uncertainties. These findings have implications for planning future observations, where we will need to account for drifts potentially greater than the prediction uncertainties. The updated ephemerides are open and accessible to the wider exoplanet community both from our Open Science Framework repository and our website.

Keywords
Astrophysics - Earth and Planetary Astrophysics

The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series
Volume 258, Number 2
2022 February

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Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa Universidade do Porto Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade de Coimbra
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia COMPETE 2020 PORTUGAL 2020 União Europeia