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BEBOP III. Observations and an independent mass measurement of Kepler-16 (AB) b – the first circumbinary planet detected with radial velocities

A. H. M. J. Triaud, M. R. Standing, N. Heidari, D. Martin, I. Boisse, A. Santerne, A. C. M. Correia, L. Acuña, M. Battley, X. Bonfils, A. Carmona, A. Collier Cameron, P. Cortes-Zuleta, G. Dransfield, S. Dalal, M. Deleuil, X. Delfosse, J. P. Faria, T. Forveille, N. Hara, G. Hébrard, S. Hoyer, F. Kiefer, V. Kunovac, P. F. L. Maxted, E. Martioli, N. Miller, R. Nelson, M. Poveda, H. Rein, L. Sairam, S. Udry, E. Willett

The radial velocity method is amongst the most robust and most established means of detecting exoplanets. Yet, it has so far failed to detect circumbinary planets despite their relatively high occurrence rates. Here, we report velocimetric measurements of Kepler-16A, obtained with the SOPHIE spectrograph, at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence’s 193cm telescope, collected during the BEBOP survey for circumbinary planets. Our measurements mark the first radial velocity detection of a circumbinary planet, independently determining the mass of Kepler-16 (AB) b to be 0.313±0.039MJup⁠, a value in agreement with eclipse timing variations. Our observations demonstrate the capability to achieve photon-noise precision and accuracy on single-lined binaries, with our final precision reaching 1.5 ms−1 on the binary and planetary signals. Our analysis paves the way for more circumbinary planet detections using radial velocities which will increase the relatively small sample of currently known systems to statistically relevant numbers, using a method that also provides weaker detection biases. Our data also contain a long-term radial velocity signal, which we associate with the magnetic cycle of the primary star.

techniques: radial velocities, planets and satellites: detection, planets and satellites: individual: Kepler-16, binaries: eclipsing, binaries: spectroscopic

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volume 511, Issue 3, Page 3561
2022 April

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Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa Universidade do Porto Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade de Coimbra
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia COMPETE 2020 PORTUGAL 2020 União Europeia