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Euclid: Searching for pair-instability supernovae with the Deep Survey

T. J. Moriya, C. Inserra, M. Tanaka, E. Cappellaro, M. Della Valle, I. M. Hook, R. Kotak, G. Longo, F. Mannucci, S. Mattila, C. Tao, B. Altieri, A. Amara, N. Auricchio, D. Bonino, E. Branchini, M. Brescia, J. Brinchmann, S. Camera, V. Capobianco, C. Carbone, J. Carretero, M. Castellano, S. Cavuoti, A. Cimatti, R. Cledassou, G. Congedo, C. J. Conselice, L. Conversi, Y. Copin, L. Corcione, F. Courbin, M. Cropper, A. C. da Silva, H. Degaudenzi, M. Douspis, F. Dubath, C. A. J. Duncan, X. Dupac, S. Dusini, A. Ealet, S. Farrens, S. Ferriol, M. Frailis, E. Franceschi, M. Fumana, B. Garilli, W. Gillard, B. R. Gillis, C. Giocoli, A. Grazian, F. Grupp, S. V. H. Haugan, W. A. Holmes, F. Hormuth, A. Hornstrup, K. Jahnke, S. Kermiche, A. Kiessling, M. Kilbinger, T. D. Kitching, H. Kurki-Suonio, S. Ligori, P. B. Lilje, I. Lloro, E. Maiorano, O. Mansutti, O. Marggraf, K. Markovic, F. Marulli, R. Massey, H. J. McCracken, M. Melchior, M. Meneghetti, G. Meylan, M. Moresco, L. Moscardini, E. Munari, S. M. Niemi, C. Padilla, S. Paltani, F. Pasian, K. Pedersen, V. Pettorino, M. Poncet, L. Popa, F. Raison, J. D. Rhodes, G. Riccio, E. Rossetti, R. Saglia, B. Sartoris, P. Schneider, A. Secroun, G. Seidel, C. Sirignano, G. Sirri, L. Stanco, P. Tallada-Crespí, A. N. Taylor, I. Tereno, R. Toledo-Moreo, F. Torradeflot, Y. Wang, G. Zamorani, J. Zoubian, S. Andreon, V. Scottez, P. W. Morris

Abstract
Pair-instability supernovae are theorized supernovae that have not yet been observationally confirmed. They are predicted to exist in low-metallicity environments. Because overall metallicity becomes lower at higher redshifts, deep near-infrared transient surveys probing high-redshift supernovae are suitable to discover pair-instability supernovae. The Euclid satellite, which is planned launch in 2023, has a near-infrared wide-field instrument that is suitable for a high-redshift supernova survey. The Euclid Deep Survey is planned to make regular observations of three Euclid Deep Fields (40 deg2 in total) spanning Euclid’s six-year primary mission period. While the observations of the Euclid Deep Fields are not frequent, we show that the predicted long duration of pair-instability supernovae would allow us to search for high-redshift pair-instability supernovae with the Euclid Deep Survey. Based on the current observational plan of the Euclid mission, we conduct survey simulations in order to estimate the expected numbers of pair-instability supernova discoveries. We find that up to several hundred pair-instability supernovae at z ≲ 3.5 can be discovered within the Euclid Deep Survey. We also show that pair-instability supernova candidates can be efficiently identified by their duration and color, which can be determined with the current Euclid Deep Survey plan. We conclude that the Euclid mission can lead to the first confirmation of pair-instability supernovae if their event rates are as high as those predicted by recent theoretical studies. We also update the expected numbers of superluminous supernova discoveries in the Euclid Deep Survey based on the latest observational plan.

Keywords
stars: massive / supernovae: general / surveys

Notes
This paper is published on behalf of the Euclid Consortium.

Astronomy & Astrophysics
Volume 666, Article Number A157, Number of pages 12
2022 October

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Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa Universidade do Porto Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade de Coimbra
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia COMPETE 2020 PORTUGAL 2020 União Europeia