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The Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey: Implementation, data products, open cluster survey, science, and legacy

S. Randich, G. Gilmore, L. Magrini, G. G. Sacco, R. J. Jackson, R. D. Jeffries, C. Worley, A. Hourihane, A. Gonneau, C. Viscasillas Vazquez, E. Franciosini, J. Lewis, E. J. Alfaro, C. Allende Prieto, T. Bensby, R. Blomme, A. Bragaglia, E. Flaccomio, P. François, M. Irwin, S. Koposov, A. J. Korn, A. C. Lanzafame, E. Pancino, A. Recio-Blanco, R. Smiljanic, S. Van Eck, T. Zwitter, M. Asplund, P. Bonifacio, S. Feltzing, J. Binney, J. E. Drew, A. Ferguson, G. Micela, I. Negueruela, T. Prusti, H. -W. Rix, A. Vallenari, A. Bayo, M. Bergemann, K. Biazzo, G. Carraro, A. Casey, F. Damiani, A. Frasca, U. Heiter, V. Hill, P. Jofré, P. de Laverny, K. Lind, G. Marconi, C. Martayan, T. Masseron, L. Monaco, L. Morbidelli, L. Prisinzano, L. Sbordone, S. G. Sousa, S. Zaggia, V. Zh. Adibekyan, R. Bonito, E. Caffau, S. Daflon, D. Feuillet, M. Gebran, J. I. González Hernández, G. Guiglion, A. Herrero, A. Lobel, J. Maiz Apellaniz, T. Merle, S. Mikolaitis, D. Montes, T. Morel, C. Soubiran, L. Spina, H. M. Tabernero, G. Tautvai¨iene, G. Traven, M. Valentini, M. Van der Swaelmen, S. Villanova, U. Abbas, V. Aguirre Børsen-Koch, J. Alves, L. Balaguer-Núñez, P. S. Barklem, D. Barrado, S. R. Berlanas, A. S. Binks, A. Bressan, R. Capuzzo-Dolcetta, L. Casagrande, L. Casamiquela, R. S. Collins, V. D'Orazi, M. L. L. Dantas, V. P. Debattista, E. Delgado-Mena, P. Di Marcantonio, A. Drazdauskas, N. W. Evans, B. Famaey, M. Franchini, Y. Frémat, E. D. Friel, X. Fu, D. Geisler, O. Gerhard, E. A. Gonzalez Solares, E. K. Grebel, M. L. Gutierrez Albarran, D. Hatzidimitriou, E. V. Held, F. Jiménez-Esteban, H. Jönsson, C. Jordi, T. Khachaturyants, G. Kordopatis, J. Kos, N. Lagarde, L. Mahy, M. Mapelli, E. Marfil, S. L. Martell, S. Messina, A. Miglio, I. Minchev, A. Moitinho, J. Montalban, M. J. P. F. G. Monteiro, C. Morossi, N. Mowlavi, A. Mucciarelli, D. N. A. Murphy, N. Nardetto, S. Ortolani, F. Paletou, J. Palou¨, E. Paunzen, J. C. Pickering, A. Quirrenbach, P. Re Fiorentin, J. I. Read, D. Romano, N. Ryde, N. Sanna, W. Santos, G. M. Seabroke, A. Spagna, M. Steinmetz, E. Stonkuté, E. Sutorius, F. Thévenin, M. Tosi, M. Tsantaki, J. S. Vink, N. J. Wright, N. J. Wright, R. F. G. Wyse, M. Zoccali, J. Zorec, D. B. Zucker, N. A. Walton

Context. In the last 15 years different ground-based spectroscopic surveys have been started (and completed) with the general aim of delivering stellar parameters and elemental abundances for large samples of Galactic stars, complementing Gaia astrometry. Among those surveys, the Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey, the only one performed on a 8m class telescope, was designed to target 100 000 stars using FLAMES on the ESO VLT (both Giraffe and UVES spectrographs), covering all the Milky Way populations, with a special focus on open star clusters.
Aims. This article provides an overview of the survey implementation (observations, data quality, analysis and its success, data products, and releases), of the open cluster survey, of the science results and potential, and of the survey legacy. A companion article reviews the overall survey motivation, strategy, Giraffe pipeline data reduction, organisation, and workflow.
Methods. We made use of the information recorded and archived in the observing blocks; during the observing runs; in a number of relevant documents; in the spectra and master catalogue of spectra; in the parameters delivered by the analysis nodes and the working groups; in the final catalogue; and in the science papers. Based on these sources, we critically analyse and discuss the output and products of the Survey, including science highlights. We also determined the average metallicities of the open clusters observed as science targets and of a sample of clusters whose spectra were retrieved from the ESO archive.
Results. The Gaia-ESO Survey has determined homogeneous good-quality radial velocities and stellar parameters for a large fraction of its more than 110 000 unique target stars. Elemental abundances were derived for up to 31 elements for targets observed with UVES. Lithium abundances are delivered for about 1/3 of the sample. The analysis and homogenisation strategies have proven to be successful; several science topics have been addressed by the Gaia-ESO consortium and the community, with many highlight results achieved.
Conclusions. The final catalogue will be released through the ESO archive in the first half of 2022, including the complete set of advanced data products. In addition to these results, the Gaia-ESO Survey will leave a very important legacy, for several aspects and for many years to come.

surveys / catalogs / techniques: spectroscopic / stars: fundamental parameters / stars: abundances / open clusters and associations: general

Table B.5 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg. fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/666/A121

★★ Based on data products from observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programmes 188.B-3002, 193.B-0936, and 197.B-1074.

Astronomy & Astrophysics
Volume 666, Article Number A121, Number of pages 29
2022 October

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Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa Universidade do Porto Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade de Coimbra
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia COMPETE 2020 PORTUGAL 2020 União Europeia