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TESS Cycle 2 observations of roAp stars with 2-min cadence data

D. L. Holdsworth, M. S. Cunha, M. Lares-Martiz, D. W. Kurtz, V. Antoci, S. Barceló Forteza, P. De Cat, A. Derekas, C. Kayhan, D. Ozuyar, M. Skarka, D. R. Hey, F. Shi, D. M. Bowman, O. Kobzar, A. Ayala Gómez, Z. Bognár, D. L. Buzasi, M. Ebadi, L. Fox-Machado, A. García Hernández, H. Ghasemi, J. A. Guzik, R. Handberg, G. Handler, A. Hasanzadeh, R. Jayaraman, V. Khalack, O. Kochukhov, C. Lovekin, P. Mikołajczyk, D. E. Mkrtichian, S. J. Murphy, E. Niemczura, B. G. Olafsson, J. Pascual-Granado, E. Paunzen, N. Posiłek, A. Ramón-Ballesta, H. Safari, A. Samadi-Ghadim, B. Smalley, A. Sódor, I. Stateva, J.-C. Suárez, R. Szabó, T. Wu, E. Ziaali, W. Zong, S. Seager

We present the results of a systematic search of the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) 2-min cadence data for new rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) stars observed during the Cycle 2 phase of its mission. We find seven new roAp stars previously unreported as such and present the analysis of a further 25 roAp stars that are already known. Three of the new stars show multiperiodic pulsations, while all new members are rotationally variable stars, leading to almost 70 per cent (22) of the roAp stars presented being α2 CVn-type variable stars. We show that targeted observations of known chemically peculiar stars are likely to overlook many new roAp stars, and demonstrate that multiepoch observations are necessary to see pulsational behaviour changes. We find a lack of roAp stars close to the blue edge of the theoretical roAp instability strip, and reaffirm that mode instability is observed more frequently with precise, space-based observations. In addition to the Cycle 2 observations, we analyse TESS data for all-known roAp stars. This amounts to 18 further roAp stars observed by TESS. Finally, we list six known roAp stars that TESS is yet to observe. We deduce that the incidence of roAp stars amongst the Ap star population is just 5.5  per cent, raising fundamental questions about the conditions required to excite pulsations in Ap stars. This work, coupled with our previous work on roAp stars in Cycle 1 observations, presents the most comprehensive, homogeneous study of the roAp stars in the TESS nominal mission, with a collection of 112 confirmed roAp stars in total.

asteroseismology, techniques: photometric, stars: chemically peculiar, stars: oscillations, stars: variables, stars: individual

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volume 527, Issue 4, Page 32
2024 February

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Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa Universidade do Porto Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade de Coimbra
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia COMPETE 2020 PORTUGAL 2020 União Europeia