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Planck early results. XII. Cluster Sunyaev-Zeldovich optical scaling relations

N. Aghanim, M. Arnaud, M. Ashdown, J. Aumont, C. Baccigalupi, A. Balbi, A. J. Banday, R. B. Barreiro, M. Bartelmann, J.G. Bartlett, E. Battaner, K. Benabed, A. Benoît, J.-P. Bernard, M. Bersanelli, R. Bhatia, J. J. Bock, A. Bonaldi, J. R. Bond, J. Borrill, F. R. Bouchet, M. L. Brown, M. Bucher, C. Burigana, P. Cabella, J.-F. Cardoso, A. Catalano, L. Cayón, A. Challinor, A. Chamballu, L.-Y. Chiang, C. Chiang, G. Chon, P. R. Christensen, E. Churazov, D. L. Clements, S. Colafrancesco, S. Colombi, F. Couchot, A. Coulais, B. P. Crill, F. Cuttaia, A. C. da Silva, H. Dahle, L. Danese, R. J. Davis, P. de Bernardis, G. de Gasperis, A. de Rosa, G. de Zotti, J. Delabrouille, J.-M. Delouis, F.-X. Désert, J. M. Diego, K. Dolag, S. Donzelli, O. Doré, U. Dörl, M. Douspis, X. Dupac, G. Efstathiou, T. A. Enβlin, F. Finelli, I. Flores-Cacho, O. Forni, M. Frailis, E. Franceschi, S. Fromenteau, S. Galeotta, K. Ganga, R. T. Génova-Santos, M. Giard, G. Giardino, Y. Giraud-Héraud, J. González-Nuevo, K. M. Gorski, S. Gratton, A. Gregorio, A. Gruppuso, D. L. Harrison, S. Henrot-Versillé, C. Hernández-Monteagudo, D. Herranz, S. R. Hildebrandt, E. Hivon, M. Hobson, W. A. Holmes, W. Hovest, R. Hoyland, K. M. Huffenberger, A. H. Jaffe, W. C. Jones, M. Juvela, E. Keihänen, R. Keskitalo, T. S. Kisner, R. Kneissl, L. Knox, H. Kurki-Suonio, G. Lagache, J.-M. Lamarre, A. Lasenby, R. J. Laureijs, C. R. Lawrence, S. Leach, R. Leonardi, M. Linden-Vørnle, M. López-Caniego, P. M. Lubin, J. F. Macías-Pérez, C. J. MacTavish, B. Maffei, D. Maino, N. Mandolesi, R. Mann, M. Maris, F. Marleau, E. Martínez-González, S. Masi, S. Matarrese, F. Matthai, P. Mazzotta, S. Mei, A. Melchiorri, J.-B. Melin, L. Mendes, A. Mennella, S. Mitra, M.-A. Miville-Deschênes, A. Moneti, L. Montier, G. Morgante, D. Mortlock, D. Munshi, J. A. Murphy, P. Naselsky, P. Natoli, C. B. Netterfield, H. U. Nørgaard-Nielsen, F. Noviello, D. Novikov, I. Novikov, I. J. O'Dwyer, S. Osborne, F. Pajot, F. Pasian, G. Patanchon, O. Perdereau, L. Perotto, F. Perrotta, F. Piacentini, M. Piat, E. Pierpaoli, R. Piffaretti, S. Plaszczynski, E. Pointecouteau, G. Polenta, N. Ponthieu, T. Poutanen, G. W. Pratt, G. Prézeau, S. Prunet, J.-L. Puget, R. Rebolo López, M. Reinecke, C. Renault, S. Ricciardi, T. Riller, I. Ristorcelli, G. Rocha, C. Rosset, J. A. Rubiño-Martin, B. Rusholme, M. Sandri, G. Savini, B. M. Schäfer, D. Scott, M. D. Seiffert, P. Shellard, G. F. Smoot, J.-L. Starck, F. Stivoli, V. Stolyarov, R. Sudiwala, R. Sunyaev, J.-F. Sygnet, J. A. Tauber, L. Terenzi, L. Toffolatti, M. Tomasi, J.-P. Torre, M. Tristram, J. Tuovinen, L. Valenziano, L. Vibert, P. Vielva, F. Villa, N. Vittorio, B. D. Wandelt, S. D. M. White, M. White, D. Yvon, A. Zacchei, A. Zonca

Abstract
We present the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) signal-to-richness scaling relation (Y500 - N200) for the MaxBCG cluster catalogue. Employing a multifrequency matched filter on the Planck sky maps, we measure the SZ signal for each cluster by adapting the filter according to weak-lensing calibrated mass-richness relations (N200 - M500).We bin our individual measurements and detect the SZ signal down to the lowest richness systems (N200 = 10) with high significance, achieving a detection of the SZ signal in systems with mass as low as M500 ≈ 5 × 1013 M.
The observed Y500 - N200 relation is well modeled by a power law over the full richness range. It has a lower normalisation at given N200 than predicted based on X-ray models and published mass-richness relations. An X-ray subsample, however, does conform to the predicted scaling, and model predictions do reproduce the relation between our measured bin-average SZ signal and measured bin-average X-ray luminosities. At fixed richness, we find an intrinsic dispersion in the Y500 - N200 relation of 60% rising to of order 100% at low richness.
Thanks to its all-sky coverage, Planck provides observations for more than 13,000 MaxBCG clusters and an unprecedented SZ/optical data set, extending the list of known cluster scaling laws to include SZ-optical properties. The data set offers essential clues for models of galaxy formation. Moreover, the lower normalisation of the SZ-mass relation implied by the observed SZ-richness scaling has important consequences for cluster physics and cosmological studies with SZ clusters.

Keywords
galaxies: clusters: intracluster medium – cosmic background radiation – large-scale structure of Universe – cosmology: observations – galaxies: clusters: general

Astronomy and Astrophysics
Volume 536, Number of pages A12_1
2011 December

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Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço Universidade do Porto Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia COMPETE 2020 PORTUGAL 2020 União Europeia