C. J. A. P. Martins
Previously developed analytic models for the evolution of cosmic string and monopole networks are applied to networks of monopoles attached to two or more strings; the former case is usually know as cosmic necklaces. These networks are a common consequence of models with extra dimensions such as brane in ation. Our quantitative analysis agrees with (and extends) previous simpler estimates, but we will also highlight some differences. A linear scaling solution is usually the attractor solution for both the radiation and matter-dominated epochs, but other scaling laws can also exist, depending on the universe's expansion rate and the network's energy loss mechanisms.
Physical Review D
Volume 82, Issue 0673, Page 067301_1