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Planck early results XXVI: Detection with Planck and confirmation by XMM-Newton of PLCK G266.6-27.3, an exceptionally X-ray luminous and massive galaxy cluster at z ∼ 1

N. Aghanim, M. Arnaud, M. Ashdown, F. Atrio-Barandela, J. Aumont, C. Baccigalupi, A. Balbi, A. J. Banday, R. B. Barreiro, J.G. Bartlett, E. Battaner, K. Benabed, J.-P. Bernard, M. Bersanelli, R. Bhatia, H. Böhringer, A. Bonaldi, J. R. Bond, S. Borgani, J. Borrill, F. R. Bouchet, M. L. Brown, C. Burigana, P. Cabella, C. M. Cantalupo, B. Cappellini, P. Carvalho, A. Catalano, L. Cayón, L.-Y. Chiang, C. Chiang, G. Chon, P. R. Christensen, E. Churazov, D. L. Clements, S. Colafrancesco, S. Colombi, B. P. Crill, F. Cuttaia, A. C. da Silva, H. Dahle, L. Danese, O. D'Arcangelo, R. J. Davis, P. de Bernardis, G. de Gasperis, G. de Zotti, J. Delabrouille, J.-M. Delouis, J. Démoclès, F.-X. Désert, C. Dickinson, J. M. Diego, H. Dole, S. Donzelli, O. Doré, M. Douspis, X. Dupac, G. Efstathiou, T. A. Enβlin, H. K. Eriksen, F. Finelli, I. Flores-Cacho, O. Forni, P. Fosalba, M. Frailis, E. Franceschi, S. Fromenteau, S. Galeotta, K. Ganga, R. T. Génova-Santos, M. Giard, J. González-Nuevo, R. González-Riestra, K. Górski, A. Gregorio, A. Gruppuso, F. K. Hansen, D. L. Harrison, P. Heinämäki, C. Hernández-Monteagudo, S. R. Hildebrandt, E. Hivon, M. Hobson, G. Hurier, A. H. Jaffe, W. C. Jones, M. Juvela, E. Keihänen, R. Keskitalo, T. S. Kisner, R. Kneissl, H. Kurki-Suonio, A. Lähteenmäki, J.-M. Lamarre, A. Lasenby, C. R. Lawrence, M. Le Jeune, S. Leach, R. Leonardi, C. Leroy, A. Liddle, P. B. Lilje, M. López-Caniego, G. Luzzi, J. F. Macías-Pérez, D. Maino, N. Mandolesi, F. Marleau, E. Martínez-González, S. Masi, S. Matarrese, P. Mazzotta, P. R. Meinhold, A. Melchiorri, J.-B. Melin, L. Mendes, A. Mennella, M.-A. Miville-Deschênes, A. Moneti, L. Montier, G. Morgante, D. Munshi, P. Naselsky, P. Natoli, J. Nevalainen, H. U. Nørgaard-Nielsen, F. Noviello, I. Novikov, I. J. O'Dwyer, S. Osborne, R. Paladini, F. Pasian, G. Patanchon, T. J. Pearson, O. Perdereau, L. Perotto, F. Perrotta, F. Piacentini, E. Pierpaoli, R. Piffaretti, P. Platania, E. Pointecouteau, G. Polenta, N. Ponthieu, L. Popa, T. Poutanen, G. W. Pratt, G. Prézeau, S. Prunet, J.-L. Puget, J. P. Rachen, R. Rebolo López, M. Reinecke, C. Renault, S. Ricciardi, T. Riller, I. Ristorcelli, G. Rocha, J. A. Rubiño-Martin, E. Saar, M. Sandri, G. Savini, B. M. Schäfer, D. Scott, G. F. Smoot, J.-L. Starck, D. Sutton, J.-F. Sygnet, J. A. Tauber, L. Terenzi, L. Toffolatti, M. Tomasi, M. Tristram, M. Türler, L. Valenziano, P. Vielva, F. Villa, N. Vittorio, L. A. Wade, B. D. Wandelt, J. Weller, S. D. M. White, M. White, D. Yvon, A. Zacchei, A. Zonca

Abstract
We present first results on PLCKG266.6-27.3, a galaxy cluster candidate detected at a signal-to-noise ratio of 5 in the Planck All Sky survey. An XMM-Newton validation observation has allowed us to confirm that the candidate is a bona fide galaxy cluster. With these X-ray data we measure an accurate redshift, z = 0.94 ± 0.02, and estimate the cluster mass to be M500 = (7.8 ± 0.8) × 1014 M. PLCKG266.6-27.3 is an exceptional system: its luminosity of LX[0.5–2.0keV] = (1.4±0.05)×1045 erg s-1 equals that of the two most luminous known clusters in the z > 0.5 universe, and it is one of the most massive clusters at z ~ 1. Moreover, unlike the majority of high redshift clusters, PLCKG266.6-27.3 appears to be highly relaxed. This observation confirms Planck’s capability to detect high redshift, high mass clusters, and opens the way to the systematic study of population evolution in the exponential tail of the mass function.

Keywords
cosmology: observations – galaxies: clusters: general – galaxies: clusters: intracluster medium – X-rays: galaxies: clusters – cosmic background radiation

Astronomy and Astrophysics
Volume 536, Number of pages A26_1
2011 December

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Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço Universidade do Porto Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia COMPETE 2020 PORTUGAL 2020 União Europeia