I. de Martino, F. Atrio-Barandela, __A. C. da Silva__, H. Ebeling, A. Kashlinsky, D. Kocevski, __C. J. A. P. Martins__

**Abstract**

We study the capability of Planck data to constrain deviations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) blackbody temperature from adiabatic evolution using the thermal Sunyaev–Zeldovich anisotropy induced by clusters of galaxies. We consider two types of data sets depending on how the cosmological signal is removed: using a CMB template or using the 217 GHz map. We apply two different statistical estimators, based on the ratio of temperature anisotropies at two different frequencies and on a fit to the spectral variation of the cluster signal with frequency. The ratio method is biased if CMB residuals with amplitude ~1µK or larger are present in the data, while residuals are not so critical for the fit method. To test for systematics, we construct a template from clusters drawn from a hydro-simulation included in the pre-launch Planck Sky Model. We demonstrate that, using a proprietary catalog of X-ray-selected clusters with measured redshifts, electron densities, and X-ray temperatures, we can constrain deviations of adiabatic evolution, measured by the parameter a in the redshift scaling T(*z*) = T_{0}(1 + *z*)^{1-α}, with an accuracy of σ_{α} = 0.011 in the most optimal case and with σ_{α} = 0.018 for a less optimal case. These results represent a factor of 2–3 improvement over similar measurements carried out using quasar spectral lines and a factor 6–20 with respect to earlier results using smaller cluster samples.

**Keywords**

cosmic background radiation – cosmology: observations – cosmology: theory

**The Astrophysical Journal**

Volume 757, Number 2, Page 144_1

2012 October