P. P. Avelino, C. F. V. Gomes
We derive, using the spherical collapse model, a generalized Layzer-Irvine equation which can be used to describe the gravitational collapse of cold dark matter in a dark energy background. We show that the usual Layzer-Irvine equation is valid if the dark matter and the dark energy are minimally coupled to each other and the dark energy distribution is homogeneous, independently of its equation of state. We compute the corrections to the standard Layzer-Irvine equation which arise in the presence of dark energy inhomogeneities assuming a minimal coupling between dark matter and dark energy. We show that, in the case of a dark energy component with a constant equation-of-state parameter consistent with the latest observational constraints, these corrections are expected to be small, even if the dark energy has a negligible sound speed. However, we find that, in more general models, the impact of dark energy perturbations on the dynamics of clusters of galaxies, which will be constrained by ESA’s Euclid mission with unprecedented precision, might be significant.
Physical Review D
Volume 88, Issue 4, Page 043514_1