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Star formation around the mid-infrared bubble CN 148

L. K. Dewangan, D. K. Ojha, J. M. C. Grave, K. K. Mallick

Abstract
We present a multi-wavelength study to analyse star formation associated with the mid-infrared bubble CN 148 (H ii region G10.3-0.1), which harbours an O5V-O6V star. The arc-shaped distribution of molecular CO(2-1) emission, the cold dust emission, and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon features trace a photodissociation region (PDR) around the H ii region. We have identified 371 young stellar objects (YSOs) in the selected region and, interestingly, their spatial distribution correlates well with the PDR. Of these YSOs, 41 per cent are present in 13 clusters, each having visual extinction larger than 16 mag. The clusters at the edges of the bubble (both north-east and south-west) are found to be relatively younger than the clusters located further away from the bubble. We also find that four 6.7 GHz methanol masers, two extended green objects, an ultra-compact H ii region and a massive protostar candidate (as previously reported) are spatially positioned at the edges of the bubble. The existence of an apparent age gradient in YSO clusters and different early evolutionary stages of massive star formation around the bubble suggest their origin to be influenced by an H ii region expanding into the surrounding interstellar medium. The data sets are suggestive of triggered star formation.

Keywords
stars: formation - stars: pre-main-sequence - ISM: bubbles - dust, extinction - HII regions - ISM: individual objects: (IRAS 18060-2005)

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volume 446, Issue 3, Page 2640
2015 January

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Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço Universidade do Porto Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia COMPETE 2020 PORTUGAL 2020 União Europeia